The Nile is a river that flows through eastern and northern Africa and flows into the Mediterranean Sea from south to north. The Nile is tied with the Congo River in Central Africa and the Niger River in West Africa as Africa's three largest river systems.
With 6,670 kilometers long, the Nile is the longest river globally. Counting from the source of the Nile River, the main Nile River flows through 7 countries, of which the longest length flows through Sudan. In 2007, scholars from Brazil claimed that the length of the Amazon River is longer, but the global geography community has not generally recognized it.
The Nile has two main tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The Blue Nile, which originates from the Ethiopian plateau, is the lower Nile's source of water and nutrients, but the White Nile is the longest of the two tributaries and is home to Nile crocodiles. Read the following post to learn more about the Nile River.
The Nile River is located in the northeastern part of Africa and is the longest river in the world. The Nile River originates from the south of the equator, flows from south to north, and finally flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Although the Nile River has the longest process, the river's runoff is not very large because the main climate types in the basin are savannah climate and tropical desert climate. Its runoff is not even comparable to the Congo River, Zambezi River, or Niger River in Africa.
However, although the annual runoff of the Nile River is not large, it is extremely important for the desert areas in the lower reaches of the Nile River. The Nile River is its most important source of freshwater resources and is known as Egypt's "mother river." Nearly 100 million people live along the banks of the Nile and in the deltas.
|2nd Source||Blue Nile|
|Length||6,670 m (21883.2 ft.)|
|Basin Size||3,35,000 km2 (1,293,000 sq mi)|
|Maximum Width||2.8 km (1.7 mi)|
|Average Depth||8–11 m (26–36 ft)|
Countries of Nile-River-Basin
The Nile River Basin is divided into seven major regions: the East African Lake Plateau, the Mountain River Region, the White Nile Region, the Blue Nile Region, the Atbara Region, the Nile Region North of Khartoum, and the Nile Delta. The upper reaches of the Nile River are divided into three rivers: White Nile, Blue Nile, and Atbara.
- Among them, the White Nile has the longest flow and is the water source of the Nile; the uppermost White Nile is the Kagera River, which originates from Burundi on the East African plateau, and its lower reaches empties into Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa.
- The Blue Nile is the largest tributary of the Nile, with a total length of about 1,700 kilometers and a drainage area of 325,000 square kilometers. It originates from the Gojam Heights, Ethiopian Plateau. Its hydrological characteristics are opposed to those of the White Nile. These characteristics are large runoff, large drop, and large seasonal changes in flow.
- The Atbara River is the last tributary of the Nile River, originating from the Gondar region north of Lake Tana, and the river is 1120 kilometers long.
Counting from the source of the Nile River, the mainstream of the Nile River flows from upstream to downstream through seven countries, including Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt. If you consider the entire basin of the Nile River and its tributaries, the countries through which the Nile River flows include Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo (Kinshasa), and Eritrea.
Nile Length And Area
The total length of the mainstream of the Nile River is 6,670 meters (21883.2 ft.), and the drainage area is about 1,293,000 square miles (3.35 million square kilometers).
Runoff of the Nile
The average annual runoff of the Nile in Aswan is 84 billion cubic meters, which is the total water volume of the Nile; 60% comes from the Blue Nile, the White Nile supplies 32%, and the remaining 8% comes from the Atbara River. Because the Nile River flows through different natural zones, the distribution of water resources also presents obvious latitude zonality. The basin's general trend of runoff resources is decreasing from south to north.
The Nile River has the characteristics of regular flooding. In northern Sudan, it usually begins to rise in May, reaches the highest water level in August, and gradually declines, with low water levels from January to May. Although floods occur regularly, the amount of water and the timing of high tides vary widely. However, the Nile no longer floods each year because the Aswan High Dam was built in 1970. This huge dam controls the river's flow to generate electricity, irrigate (water) farms and provide homes with drinking water.
Waters of the Nile River are essential to the rise of one of the world's earliest great civilizations, ancient Egypt. It provided ancient Egypt with fertile soil and water for irrigation and a means of transporting materials for building projects. Its vital waters enabled cities to sprout amid a desert. The vast river also shaped their religion and culture. Even in the present day, millions depend on it to live. The Nile River is also a popular tourist attraction.