Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a volcanic lake located on the motor plateau in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. It is a world-famous plateau lake. It is the largest freshwater lake in Indonesia and the largest volcanic lake in the world. The Lake Toba caldera has recently been designated as one of the UNESCO Global Geoparks.
Lake Toba is one of the most spectacular natural wonders of the world. In the center of this huge crater lake lies an island about the size of Singapore. There are highways around the lake linking the towns of the plateau, leading to Medan and Shibuya on the east and west coasts.
Lake Toba is a destination that many travelers or adventurers have always dreamed of. When you sit down and face the cool, clear lake and beautiful mountain views, you will forget the stress of work and life. Since Lake Toba is more than 900 meters above sea level, the cool climate here allows people from hot, humid, and polluted cities to cool off and relax.
Lake Toba Introduction
Lake Toba is a volcanic lake located in the heart of the northern portion of the Sumatra Island in the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia. More than 70,000 years ago, the second-largest volcanic eruption in human history occurred here, resulting in a sharp decline in the population. The huge crater formed by the eruption has become today's largest volcanic lake, Lake Toba. Lake Toba is formed by faults and is surrounded by many volcanoes. The fault cliffs around the lake reach 600 meters, and the active volcanoes with an altitude of more than 2,000 meters.
There is an island about 45 kilometers long and 20 kilometers wide in the middle of the lake, called Samosir Island. It is the hometown of Toba Batak. Originally a peninsula, it became an island in 1907 due to the opening of a canal. It is the fifth-largest island in a lake in the world. There are long and narrow artificial dikes connecting the lake's west bank. Samosir Island is a volcanic terrain, so there are mostly hills and terraces with few trees on the island.
Lake Toba Size
Lake Toba is a huge natural lake in the caldera of a supervolcano that covers an area of 1,140 sq km (440 sq miles), excluding Samosir Island, which occupies a large part of the lake's center. The lake has a length of 100 km (62 miles) and a maximum width of 30 km (19 miles). The lake is situated at an elevation of 905 meters(2,969 feet) and reaches a maximum depth of 505 meters (1,657 feet).
Lake Toba is a large lake formed by volcanic activity; no river connects it to the sea. Lake Toba is particularly unusual as the central part of the lake is occupied by the large Samosir Island. The waters of Lake Toba overflow into the Asahan River, which finally empties into the Strait of Malacca.
Lake Toba consists of several types of phytoplankton and three different types of macrophytes (emerged, floating, and submerged). Rainforests dominate the areas around the lake. The lake also consists of numerous zooplankton and benthic animals. Since the lake is considered oligotrophic, the indigenous fish fauna found in the lake is also very scarce. Some of the fish species that are found in the lake include Batak fish, white spot, dwarf snakehead, striped snakehead, catfish, etc.
Due to the lake's high altitude, the annual average temperature is only about 22 degrees Celsius, and the humidity is extremely low, so the lake area is cool and dry all year round. The best way to explore the beautiful pristine scenery in Lake Toba is by riding a motorcycle like a local. If you are on Samosir Island, driving across the coast is great. Although the road is rough, the highest point will offer a magnificent view of the lake. If you are staying in the famous village of Tuk Tuk on Samosir Island, the best way to visit is to walk along the main road.