Lake Onega Size report
Lake Onega is located in northwestern Russia, mostly in the Republic of Karelia and the southern part of Leningrad and Vologda Oblasts. It is a glacial tectonic lake. The lake basin extends from northwest to southeast, shallow in the south and deep in the north; the north shore is a tortuous rocky bank composed of granite, with many lake bays; the south is straight sandy shores with beaches.
There are over 1500 lake islands with a total area of 250 square kilometers. Among the many small islands on the lake, the most famous one is the Kizhi archipelago. Ferries leave from the Lake Onega pier to Kizhi Island. Most water comes from 58 rivers, such as Shuya and Vodla. It is connected with the White Sea and the Baltic Sea through many canals, making it an important waterway for the region.
Lake Onega is blue all year round. In summer, the fresh and comfortable wind blows from the lake's distant forest. In winter, Lake Onega will be frozen with a thick layer of ice, which is an excellent place for outdoor activities. This post will introduce more details about Lake Onega.
Lake Onega Introduction
The lake is of glacier-tectonic origin. Lake Onega extends over three regions: Karelia, Leningrad, and Vologda Oblasts, and is located between Lake Ladoga and the White Sea. It is the second-largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. Its name is derived from ancient Russian texts. Many rivers flow into the lake, the largest is the Shuya in the northwest and the Vodla in the east. The Andoma, Vytegra, and Mega rivers are in the southeast and east. Lake Onega itself empties into the Svir River. It has about 1,500 islands, villages, and schools on the largest island.
Lake Onega Size
At the elevation of 33meters (108 ft) above sea level, Lake Onega covers a surface area of 9,720 square km (3,753 sq mi) excluded islands, with a length of 248 km (154 miles), greatest width of 80 km (50 miles), and a volume of 280 cubic kilometers. Lake Onega reaches its maximum depth of 127 meters (417 ft) in the northern part. The lake's average depth is 30 meters (98 ft), with averages of 50-60 meters in the center and 20-30 meters in the southern region.
Climate and Hydrology
About 1/4 of the water volume is precipitation, 84% is discharged through the Svir River, and the rest evaporates. The lake's water level is the highest from July to August and the lowest from March to April; the average annual variation of the water level is 0.5 meters, and the maximum can reach 1.9 meters. The lake area has a subarctic continental climate, with cold winters and a 4 to 5 months freezing period. The coastal parts of the lake and the small bays begin to freeze at the end of November, and the deeper central parts in the middle of January. Thawing begins at the end of April.
The lake's shores are covered with dense reed and virgin forests. The most common tree types are coniferous, lime, the European Adler, and the elm. The color of Onega's water is dark yellowish-brown in the open part and grayish-brown along the shores; water in the lake's deepest parts is clear, with transparency of up to 7-8 meters.
Many birds and fish inhabit the lake, with approximately 200 bird species and 47 fish species, including freshwater salmon, lake trout and grayling, whitefish, grayling, pike, white perch, and eel, etc. Hence, the fishing industry here is very developed. The bottom features many trenches in the northern part, which large shallow banks separate. This structure is very favorable for fish. Consequently, the banks are used for commercial fishing.
Lake Onega is connected with the Baltic and White seas by the White Sea-Baltic Canal and with the basin of the Volga River by the Volga-Baltic Waterway, which enables it to play an important part in both internal and international transportation. Goods are shipped over this route from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany to points in the east and north. The lake area is also rich in tourism resources. However, the pollution level has started to increase since more than 90% of the industrial activity occurs in these surrounding cities.