Lake Khanka (Chinese: Lake Xingkai) is a shallow lake on the China-Russian border. Originally a Chinese inland lake, after the Sino-Russian Treaty of Beijing was signed in 1860, it became a China-Russian boundary lake. In the southeast of Heilongjiang Province, 35 kilometers away from Mishan City, the northern third of the area belongs to China, and the southern part belongs to Russia.
There are many swamps around the lake, and the bottom of the lake is full of silt and humus. The lake water is turbid, and the transparency is only 60 cm. The lake water flows out from the vicinity of the northeast as the Songacha River, which flows into the Ussuri River.
Lake Xingkai is rich in fish and birds. It is an AAAA-level vacation and tourist destination in China and is known as the "Oriental Hawaii." The rare original ecological wetland environment has become an ideal place for photographers and a famous shooting spot for film and television dramas. This post will introduce more about Lake Xingkai.
Lake Khanka Introduction
Latitude 45°20′ North and longitude 132°40′ East, Lake Khanka is the largest freshwater lake in the Far East of Russia, with 72% of it located in Russia, while the remaining 28% belongs to China. Lake Xingkai in China consists of two lakes. Although large Lake Xingkai and small Lake Xingkai are very close, the scenery is different. There is a natural lake hill about one kilometer wide between the two lakes, and dense forests are on the lake hill. It is worth noting that small Lake Xingkai is entirely located in China. Around the lake's southern end is the Khanka Lowland, a rich black-earth area with some of the best soils in eastern Siberia.
Lake Khanka Size
Small Lake Xingkai is 35 kilometers long from east to west, 4.5 kilometers wide from north to south, covers an area of 176 square kilometers, and its deepest point is 4 to 5 meters. The following are the dimensions of the main water body of Lake Khanka.
- Lake Khanka is more than 90 kilometers long from south to north, and more than 45 kilometers wide from east to west, with an area of 4,190 square kilometers. It has about 3,030 square kilometers (72%) in Russia and only 1,160 square kilometers (28%) in China.
- The lake's surface is 69 meters above sea level, and the deepest part is 10 meters.
- The lake shoreline is 308 km (191 miles) long.
|Max. length||90 km (56 mi)|
|Max. width||45 km (28 mi)|
|Surface area||4,190 sq km|
|Surface elevation||69 m (223 ft)|
|Average depth||4.5 m (15 ft)|
|Max. depth||10 m (35 ft)|
|Shore length||308 km (191 mi)|
|Water volume||18.3 cubic km (4.4 cubic mi)|
The lake is fed by 23 rivers, of which 8 are in China, and the rest comes from Russia. Lake Khanka's outlet is the Sungacha (Song'acha) River, a tributary of the Ussuri River. It began to freeze in December, and the lake's surface was completely frozen within 10 to 15 days. From the end of February to the beginning of March, the ice layer was as thick as 0.9 meters. It thaws in mid and late April.
Flora and Fauna
Lake Khanka is a medium trophic lake, and its ecosystem is in a benign state. The lake area has abundant vegetation, consisting of various species of sedge and reed. The surroundings are mainly made up of open lowlands, grassy meadows, swamps, and other smaller lakes. There are about 60% of swamps and wetlands. More than 300 aquatic plants and more than 620 vascular plants have been identified in the Lake Khanka area.
The lake is home to many fish and aquatic invertebrate species, including many endemic species. There are more than 75 species of fish. Lake Khanka is located in the main passage of migratory birds in Northeast Asia. In April every year, 235 species of migratory birds fly thousands of kilometers and move north to Lake Khanka, with daily traffic of 170,000 at peak.
Lake Khanka region provides a habitat for migratory birds while simultaneously providing food for humans; it is an example of the effective use of land to meet human and wildlife needs. According to Lakenet, an international network to sustain and manage lakes, in 1998, Lake Khanka was listed as a demonstration engineering region for sustainable wetland use. It is important to plant and animal species. The lake and the surrounding wetlands are protected by the Ramsar Convention today.