The Amazon River (Portuguese: Rio Amazonas; Spanish: Río Amazonas), located in northern South America, has the largest flow, the largest basin, and the most tributaries. Since the method of measuring the river's length is inconclusive, there are many different versions of the length of the Amazon River, one of which is the common 6400 kilometers.
The Amazon River is the second-longest river in the world and the largest river globally. Its river flow reaches 219,000 cubic meters per second, which is more than the sum of the other three major rivers, the Nile (Africa), the Yangtze River (China), and the Mississippi (United States). It is several times larger and accounts for 20% of the total flow of the world's rivers.
There are more than 15,000 tributaries of the river, which are distributed on the land of South America, with a drainage area of 6.915 million square kilometers, accounting for 40% of the total area of South America. There are seven tributaries over 1,600 kilometers long; the longest is the Madeira River, over 3,200 kilometers long.
Amazon River Description
The Amazon River is a massive, intricate water system weaving through one of the world's most vital and complex ecosystems, the Amazon rainforest in South America. The original Amazon did not have a general name; each tributary and segment had its local name. The Amazon River begins high in the Andes and empties into the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of Brazil; it flows through 8 countries in South America, 87% of which are in Brazil. The terrain of the Amazon River is flat, so the reach of the river affected by the tides of the Atlantic Ocean is 966 kilometers long, as far as Obidos.
The Amazon River is 6,440 kilometers long and is the second-longest river in the world; if the Amazon River takes the Maranon River as its source, its total length is 6,299 kilometers; if it takes the Ucayali River as its source, its total length is 6,437 kilometers.
Starting from the birthplace of the Ucayali-Apurimac water system in Peru, it is about 6,751 kilometers long. Its westernmost origin is the towering Andes Mountains, less than 160 kilometers away from the Pacific Ocean. Equivalent to 1/6 of the total water injected into the oceans by the world's rivers.
The Amazon River basin has an area of about 6,743,000 km2 (2,603,000 sq mi), accounting for about 40% of the total area of the South American continent. It is the river with the largest flow and the widest basin area in the world.
Runoff and Depth
The estuary is 240 kilometers wide, with a flow of 280,000 cubic meters per second during flooding. The average annual flow of the estuary is 175,000 cubic meters per second, the average annual runoff is 6.93 trillion cubic meters, and the average annual runoff depth is 1200 mm. The average depth of the downstream river channel is 20-50 meters, the maximum water depth is 100 meters, and the annual variation of the water level is 9 meters.
Climate and Environment
Most of the Amazon River basin has a tropical rainforest climate, and the upper reaches belong to a plateau mountain climate with an annual rainfall of more than 2,000 mm. Rainy, humid, and persistently high temperatures are its distinctive climatic characteristics.
The fertile silt deposited by the Amazon River nourishes an area of 6.5 million square kilometers, and the famous Amazon River rainforest grows in the Amazon River Basin. It is also the largest plain globally, with an area of 5.6 million square kilometers. It contains the most abundant and diverse biological resources in the world, with millions of species of various species. Its rich and beautiful natural resources have always attracted biologists from all over the world to explore.
The Amazon River nourishes the vast land of South America and breeds the world's largest tropical rainforest, making this region the most mysterious "kingdom of wildlife." The Amazon River also has very advantageous shipping conditions. It is not only rich in water; the river is wide and deep but also has a relatively slow descent. There are no rapids and waterfalls on the main river sections, and there is no ice all year round. The mainstream and the major tributaries can be directly navigable, thus forming a huge and convenient water shipping net.